Advanced Policy Firewall (APF) v1.7.5 (C) 2002-2014, R-fx Networks <firstname.lastname@example.org> (C) 2014, Ryan MacDonald <email@example.com> This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Contents: 1 ............. Introduction 1.1 ........... Introduction: Supported Systems & Requirements 2 ............. Installation 2.1 ........... Installation: Boot Loading 3 ............. Configuration 3.1 ........... Configuration: Basic Options 3.2 ........... Configuration: Advanced Options 3.3 ........... Configuration: Reactive Address Blocking 3.4 ........... Configuration: Virtual Network Files 3.5 ........... Configuration: Global Variables & Custom Rules 4 ............. General Usage 4.1 ........... General Usage: Trust System 4.2 ........... General Usage: Global Trust System 4.3 ........... General Usage: Advanced Trust Syntax 4.4 ........... General Usage: Dynamic Trust Files 5 ............. License 6 ............. Support Information 1) Introduction: Advanced Policy Firewall (APF) is an iptables(netfilter) based firewall system designed around the essential needs of today's Internet deployed servers and the unique needs of custom deployed Linux installations. The configuration of APF is designed to be very informative and present the user with an easy to follow process, from top to bottom of the configuration file. The management of APF on a day-to-day basis is conducted from the command line with the 'apf' command, which includes detailed usage information and all the features one would expect from a current and forward thinking firewall solution. The technical side of APF is such that it embraces the latest stable features put forward by the iptables(netfilter) project to provide a very robust and powerful firewall. The filtering performed by APF is three fold: 1) Static rule based policies (not to be confused with a "static firewall") 2) Connection based stateful policies 3) Sanity based policies The first, static rule based policies, is the most traditional method of firewalling. This is when the firewall has an unchanging set of instructions (rules) on how traffic should be handled in certain conditions. An example of a static rule based policy would be when you allow/deny an address access to the server with the trust system or open a new port with conf.apf. So the short of it is rules that infrequently or never change while the firewall is running. The second, connection based stateful policies, is a means to distinguish legitimate packets for different types of connections. Only packets matching a known connection will be allowed by the firewall; others will be rejected. An example of this would be FTP data transfers, in an older era of firewalling you would have to define a complex set of static policies to allow FTA data transfers to flow without a problem. That is not so with stateful policies, the firewall can see that an address has established a connection to port 21 then "relate" that address to the data transfer portion of the connection and dynamically alter the firewall to allow the traffic. The third, sanity based policies, is the ability of the firewall to match various traffic patterns to known attack methods or scrutinize traffic to conform to Internet standards. An example of this would be when a would-be attacker attempts to forge the source IP address of data they are sending to you, APF can simply discard this traffic or optionally log it then discard it. To the same extent another example would be when a broken router on the Internet begins to relay malformed packets to you, APF can simply discard them or in other situations reply to the router and have it stop sending you new packets (TCP Reset). These three key filtering methods employed by APF are simply a generalization of how the firewall is constructed on a technical design level, there are a great many more features in APF that can be put to use. For a detailed description of all APF features you should review the configuration file /etc/apf/conf.apf which has well outlined captions above all options. Below is a point form summary of most APF features for reference and review: - detailed and well commented configuration file - granular inbound and outbound network filtering - user id based outbound network filtering - application based network filtering - trust based rule files with an optional advanced syntax - global trust system where rules can be downloaded from a central management server - reactive address blocking (RAB), next generation in-line intrusion prevention - debug mode provided for testing new features and configuration setups - fast load feature that allows for 1000+ rules to load in under 1 second - inbound and outbound network interfaces can be independently configured - global tcp/udp port & icmp type filtering with multiple methods of executing filters (drop, reject, prohibit) - configurable policies for each ip on the system with convenience variables to import settings - packet flow rate limiting that prevents abuse on the most widely abused protocol, icmp - prerouting and postrouting rules for optimal network performance - dshield.org block list support to ban networks exhibiting suspicious activity - spamhaus Don't Route Or Peer List support to ban known "hijacked zombie" IP blocks - any number of additional interfaces may be configured as firewalled (untrusted) or trusted (not firewalled) - additional firewalled interfaces can have there own unique firewall policies applied - intelligent route verification to prevent embarrassing configuration errors - advanced packet sanity checks to make sure traffic coming and going meets the strictest of standards - filter attacks such as fragmented UDP, port zero floods, stuffed routing, arp poisoning and more - configurable type of service options to dictate the priority of different types of network traffic - intelligent default settings to meet every day server setups - dynamic configuration of your servers local DNS revolvers into the firewall - optional filtering of common p2p applications - optional filtering of private & reserved IP address space - optional implicit blocks of the ident service - configurable connection tracking settings to scale the firewall to the size of your network - configurable kernel hooks (ties) to harden the system further to syn-flood attacks & routing abuses - advanced network control such as explicit congestion notification and overflow control - special chains that are aware of the state of FTP DATA and SSH connections to prevent client side issues - control over the rate of logged events, want only 30 filter events a minute? 300 a minute? - you are the boss - logging subsystem that allows for logging data to user space programs or standard syslog files - logging that details every rule added and a comprehensive set of error checks to prevent config errors - if you are familiar with netfilter you can create your own rules in any of the policy files - pluggable and ready advanced use of QoS algorithms provided by the Linux - 3rd party add-on projects that compliment APF features Still on the feature todo list is: - full support for NAT/MASQ including port forwarding - cluster oriented round-robin packet or port forwarding - in-line firewall reactive address blocking of connction floods - and much more... 1.1) Introduction: Supported Systems & Requirements The APF package is designed to run on Linux based operating systems that have an operational version of the iptables (netfilter) package installed. The iptables (netfilter) package is supported on Linux kernels 2.4 and above, you can find out more details on the netfilter project at: http://www.netfilter.org/ If the version of Linux you are using already has an included copy of iptables then chances are very high it has all the iptables modules that APF will need. If you are configuring iptables in your own custom kernel then you should be sure that the following modules are compiled with the kernel for modular support: ip_tables iptable_filter iptable_mangle ip_conntrack ip_conntrack_irc ip_conntrack_ftp ipt_state ipt_multiport ipt_limit ipt_recent ipt_LOG ipt_REJECT ipt_ecn ipt_length ipt_mac ipt_multiport ipt_owner ipt_state ipt_ttl ipt_TOS ipt_TCPMSS ipt_ULOG If you would like to make sure you support these modules then you can take a look inside of /lib/modules/kernelver/kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ directory. # ls /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ The known Linux platforms that APF will run on are very diverse and it is hard to keep track but here is a short summary: Redhat Enterprise AS/ES 2+ CentOS Any Fedora Core Any Slackware 8.0+ Debian GNU/Linux 3.0+ Suse Linux 8.1+ Unbuntu Any TurboLinux Server 9+ TurboLinux Fuji (Desktop) RedHat Linux 7.3,8,9 The base system specs for APF operating as intended are not set in stone and you can easily scale the package into almost any situation that has a Linux 2.4+ kernel, iptables and bash shell with standard set of gnu-utils (grep, awk, sed and the like). Below is a short table of what is recommended: DEVICE MIN RECOMMENDED CPU: 300Mhz 600Mhz MEM: 64MB 96MB DISK: OS OS NETWORK: Any Any 2) Installation The installation setup of APF is very straight forward, there is an included install.sh script that will perform all the tasks of installing APF for you. Begin Install: # sh install.sh or # INSTALL_PATH=/etc/yourpath sh install.sh If one so desires they may customize the setup of APF by editing the variables inside the install.sh script followed by also editing the path variables in the conf.apf and internals.conf files. This is however not recommends and the default paths should meet all user needs, they are: Install Path: /etc/apf Bin Path: /usr/local/sbin/apf The package includes two convenience scripts, the first is importconf which will import all the variable settings from your previous version of APF into the new installation. The second is get_ports, a script which will output the systems currently in use 'server' ports for the user during the installation process in an effort to aid in configuring port settings. All previous versions of APF are saved upon the installation of newer versions and stored in /etc/apf.bkDDMMYY-UTIME format. In addition, there is a /etc/apf.bk.last sym-link created to the last version of APF you had installed. After installation is completed the documentation and convenience scripts are copied to /etc/apf/docs and /etc/apf/extras respective. 2.1) Installation: Boot Loading On installation APF will install an init script to /etc/init.d/apf and configure it to load on boot. If you are setting up APF in a more custom situation then you may follow the below instructions. There is really 3 modes of operation for having APF firewall our system and each has no real benifit except tailoring itself to your needs. The first is to setup APF in the init system with chkconfig (done by default during install), as detailed below: chkconfig --add apf chkconfig --level 345 apf on Secondly, you can add the following string too the bottom of the /etc/rc.local file: sh -c "/etc/apf/apf -s" & It is NOT recommended that you use both of these startup methods together, for most systems the init script via chkconfig should be fine. The third and final approuch is to simply run APF in an on-demand fashion. That is, enable it with the 'apf -s' command when desired and disable it with the 'apf -f' when desired. 3) Configuration: On your first installation of APF it will come pretty bare in the way of preconfigured options, this is intentional. The most common issue with many firewalls is that they come configured with so many options that a user may never use or disable, that it leaves systems riddled with firewall holes. Now with that said, APF comes configured with only a single incoming port enabled by default and that is port 22 SSH. Along with a set of common practice filtering options preset in the most compatible fashion for all users. All the real advanced options APF has to offer are by default disabled including outbound (egress) port filtering, reactive address blocking (rab) and the virtual network subsystem to name a few. The main APF configuration file is located at /etc/apf/conf.apf and has detailed usage information above all configuration variables. The file uses integer based values for setting configuration options and they are 0 = disabled 1 = enabled All configuration options use this integer value system unless otherwise indicated in the description of that option. You should put aside 5 minutes and review the configuration file from top to bottom taking the time to read all the captions for the options that are provided. This may seem like a daunting task but a firewall is only as good as it is configured and that requires you, the administrator, to take a few minutes to understand what it is you are setting up. APF is a very powerful firewall that when setup to make use of all the advanced features, will provide a sophisticated and robust level of protection. Please continue reading further along this file for more information or see the support options at the bottom of this file for further assistance if you find yourself lost in the configuration process. 3.1) Configuration: Basic Options This section will cover some of the basic configuration options found inside of the conf.apf configuration file. These options, despite how basic, are the most vital in the proper operation of your firewall. Option: DEVEL_MODE Description: This tells APF to run in a development mode which in short means that the firewall will shut itself off every 5 minutes from a cronjob. When you install any version of APF, upgrade or new install, this feature is by default enabled to make sure the user does not lock themself out of the system with configuration errors. Once you are satisfied that you have the firewall configured and operating as intended then you must disable it. Option: INSTALL_PATH Description: As it implies, this is the installation path for APF and unless you have become a brave surgeon it is unlikely you will ever need to reconfigure this option - on we go. Option: IFACE_UNTRUSTED Description: This variable controls the interface that firewall rules are applied against. This interface is commonly the Internet facing interface or any interface that faces the main network of untrusted communication (WAN). Option: IFACE_TRUSTED Description: It is common that you may want to set a specific interface as trusted to be excluded from the firewall, these may be administrative private links, virtualized VPN interfaces or a local area network that is contains trusted resources. This feature is similar to what some term as demilitarized zone or DMZ for short, any interfaces set in this option will be excempt from all firewall rules with an implicit trust rule set early in the firewall load. Option: SET_VERBOSE Description: This option tells the apf script to print very detailed event logs to the screen as you are conducting firewall operations from the command line. This will allow for easier trouble shooting of firewall issues or to assist the user in better understanding what the firewall is doing rule-by-rule. Although the SET_VERBOSE option is new to APF, this level of logging has long been provided in the /var/log/apf_log file and still remains as such. Option: SET_FASTLOAD Description: This tells APF to use a special feature to take saved snap shots of the running firewall. Instead of regenerating every single firewall rule when we stop/start the firewall, APF will use these snap shots to "fast load" the rules in bulk. There are internal features in APF that will detect when configuration has changed and then expire the snap shot forcing a full reload of the firewall. Option: SET_VNET Description: The ever curious option called SET_VNET, to put it brief this option controls the virtual network subsystem of APF also known as VNET. This is a subsystem that generates policy files for all aliased addresses on the IFACE_IN/OUT interfaces. In general this option is not needed for the normal operation of APF but is provided should you want to easily configured unique policies for the aliased addresses on an Interface. Please see topic 3.4 of this document for more advanced details related to this option. Option: SET_ADDIFACE Description: This allows you to have additional untrusted interfaces firewalled by APF and this is done through the VNET system. So for example let assume you have a datacenter provided eth2 interface for local network backups but you know hundreds of other Internet facing servers are also on this network. In such a situation it would be the best course to enable this option (along with SET_VNET) so that the interface is firewalled. Please see topic 3.4 of this document for more advanced details related to this option. Option: IG_TCP_CPORTS Description: This controls what TCP ports are allowed for incoming traffic, this is also known as the "server" or "listening services" ports. You would for example configure here the ports 21,25,80,110,443 if you were operating the FTP, SMTP, HTTP, POP3 & HTTPS services from this host. This is a global context rule and will apply to all addresses on this host unless virtual net rules are set to operate in another fashion. Option: IG_UDP_CPORTS Description: This controls what UDP ports are allowed for incoming traffic, this is also known as the "server" or "listening services" ports. You would for example configure here the ports 20,53 if you were operating the FTP & DNS services from this host. This is a global context rule and will apply to all addresses on this host unless virtual net rules are set to operate in another fashion. Option: IG_ICMP_TYPES Description: This controls what ICMP types are allowed for incoming traffic, these are control messages that the Internet uses to communicate any number of error messages during communication between hosts and networks. The default options should meet most needs however if you wish to filter a specific set of ICMP types you should review the 'internals/icmp.types' file. This is a global context rule and will apply to all addresses on this host unless virtual net rules are set to operate in another fashion. Option: EGF Description: This is a top level control feature for enabling or disabling all the outbound (egress) filtering features of the firewall. In the most basic setup of the firewall from install, this will be set to disabled and we will be operating in a mostly inbound (ingress) only filtering fashion. It is however recommended that you enable the outbound (egress) filtering as it provides a very robust level of protection and is a common practice to filtering outbound traffic. Option: EG_TCP_CPORTS Description: This controls what TCP ports are allowed for outgoing traffic, this is also known as the "client side" communication on a host. Here we would set any ports we wish to communicate with on the Internet, for example if you use many remote RSS feeds on websites then you will want to make sure port 80,443 is defined here so you can access the HTTP/HTTPS service on Internet servers. This is a global context rule and will apply to all addresses on this host unless virtual net rules are set to operate in another fashion. Option: EG_UDP_CPORTS Description: This controls what UDP ports are allowed for outgoing traffic, this is also known as the "client side" communication on a host. Here we would set any ports we wish to communicate with on the Internet, for example if you use many remote RSYNC servers then you will want to make sure port 873 is defined here so you can properly access the RSYNC service on Internet servers. This is a global context rule and will apply to all addresses on this host unless virtual net rules are set to operate in another fashion. Option: EG_ICMP_TYPES Description: This controls what ICMP types are allowed for outgoing traffic, these are control messages that the Internet uses to communicate any number of error messages during communication between hosts and networks. The default options should meet most needs however if you wish to filter a specific set of ICMP types you should review the 'internals/icmp.types' file. This is a global context rule and will apply to all addresses on this host unless virtual net rules are set to operate in another fashion. Option: LOG_DROP Description: The use of this option allows to firewall to perform very detailed firewall logging of packets as they are filtered by the firewall. This can help identify issues with the firewall or provide insightful information on who is taking pokes at the host. Typically however this option is left disabled on production systems as it can get very noisy in the log files which also can increase i/o wait loads to the disk from the heavy logging. 3.2) Configuration: Advanced Options The advanced options, although not required, are those which afford the firewall the ability to be a more robust and encompassing solution in protecting a host. These options should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis and enabled only as you determine there merit to meet a particular need on a host or network. Option: SET_MONOKERN Description: This option tells the system that instead of looking for iptables modules, that we should expect them to be compiled directly into the kernel. So unless you have a custom compiled kernel on your system where modular support is disabled or iptables (netfilter) is compiled in directly, you should not enable this option. There are also exceptions here if you have a unique system setup and APF is unable to find certain iptables modules but you know for a fact they are there, then enable this option. Option: VF_ROUTE Description: This option will make sure that the IP addressess associated to the IFACE_* variables do actually have route entries. If a route entry can not be found then APF will not load as it is likely a configuration error has been made with possible results being a locked-up server. Option: VF_LGATE Description: This option will make sure that all traffic coming into this host is going through this defined MAC address. This is not something you will want enabled in most situations but it is something certain people will desire with servers residing behind a NAT/MASQ gateway for example. Option: RAB Description: This is a top level toggle for the reactive address blocking in APF and does nothing more than either enable or disable it. Option: RAB_SANITY Description: This enables RAB for sanity violations, which is when an address breaks a strict conformity standard such as trying to spoof an address or modify packet flags. When addresses are found to have made such violations they are temporarily banned for the duration of RAB_TIMER value in seconds. Option: RAB_PSCAN_LEVEL Description: This enables RAB for port scan violations, which is when an address attempts to connect to a port that has been classifed as malicious. These types of are those which are not commonly used in today's Internet but are the subject of scrutiny by attackers, such as ports 1,7,9,11. The values for this option are broken into 4 intergers and they are 0 for disabled, 1 for low security, 2 for medium security and 3 for high security. Option: RAB_HITCOUNT Description: This controls the amount of violation hits an address must have before it is blocked. It is a good idea to keep this very low to prevent evasive measures. The default is 0 or 1, meaning instant block on first hit. Option: RAB_TIMER Description: This is the amount of time (in seconds) that an address gets blocked for if a violation is triggered, the default is 300s (5 minutes). This option has a max accepted value of 43200 seconds or 12 hours. Option: RAB_TRIP Description: This allows RAB to 'trip' the block timer back to 0 seconds if an address attempts ANY subsiquent communication while still on the inital block period. This option really is one of the more exciting features of the RAB system as it can cut off an attack at the legs before it ever mounts into something tangible against the system. Option: RAB_LOG_HIT Description: This controls if the firewall should log all violation hits from an address. It is recommended that this be enabled to provide insightful log data on addresses which are attempting to probe or conduct questionable actions against this host. The use of LOG_DROP variable set to 1 will override this to force logging. Option: RAB_LOG_TRIP Description: This controls if the firewall should log all subsiquent traffic from an address that is already blocked for a violation hit, this can generate allot of logs. However, the use of this option despite the depth of log data it may generate could provide valuble information as to the intents of an attacker. The use of LOG_DROP variable set to 1 will override this to force logging. Option: TCP_STOP, UDP_STOP, ALL_STOP Description: These options tell the firewall in which way to go about filtering traffic, the supported values are DROP, RESET, REJECT and PROHIBIT. We will review these options below in short and provide the pro/con's of their uses. - The default is DROP which tells the firewall silently discard packets and not reply to them at all, which some consider to be "stealth" firewall behavoir. The direct benifit is that it saves system resources, especially during a DoS attack in not having to reply to every discarded packet. However the problem is experienced attackers know the way TCP/IP works and it is such that when you try to connect to a service that is unavailable, your server or local router replies with an "icmp-port/host-unreachable" message. So when an attacker probing your IP address receives no reply from the server or local router to the scans, they will instantly know you are running a firewall, possibly peaking curiosity more. - Then we have RESET which allows the firewall to reply to discarded packets in such a way that it trys to make the remote host "reset/terminate" the connection attempts to you. This option is more in-line with TCP/IP standards however in most situations will provide no real benifits or drawbacks. In some really isolated situations you may find that using RESET during DoS attacks will help terminate connections more promptly but in general this does not serve to counter the system resources expended to send back replies to every single packet filtered. - Then we have the REJECT value which is a more common alternative to DROP as it allows the firewall to reply to packets with an error message. This acomplishes the goal of filtering a packet while at the same time not allowing the remote host to know that we are running a firewall, they just think the port/service is closed/unavailable. - Finally we have the PROHIBIT value which is specific for UDP_STOP but can be used as other *_STOP values with similar effect. When we set PROHIBIT we are telling the firewall to reply to the sender of packets with only ICMP error messages instead of like the case with RESET, TCP packets. This is a good alternative to reply to packets with as it does not load the system as "much" during aggressive attacks. This is also the default expected reply for UDP packets that are not accepted by a host, however APF will by default use a DROP value on UDP packets. Option: PKT_SANITY Description: This option controls the way packets are scrutinized as they flow through the firewall. The main PKT_SANITY option is a top level toggle for all SANITY options and provides general packet flag sanity as a pre-scrub for the other sanity options. In short, this makes sure that all packets coming and going conform to strict TCP/IP standards. In doing so we make it very difficult for attackers to inject raw/custom packets into this host. Now onto the sanity filters, these are options that allow APF to scrutinize traffic coming into and out of the server so it conforms to TCP/IP standards and also filters common attack characteristics. There are a number of sanity options and each one has a well detailed captain in hte configuration file. In addition, these options comes preconfigured to suite most situation needs and provide the best protection possible. With that, I will defer the PKT_SANITY details to the conf.apf file where you can find ample information on each option. Moving forward we now have the Type of Service (TOS) settings which provide a simple classification system to dictate traffic priority based on port numbers. The use of TOS in it respective capacities can have a wide ranging impact on the performance of your services, both positive and negative depending on settings. That is why it is very important that you understand and study the impact of any changes to TOS values and then act accordingly, as no two networks are alike. A very good rule of thumb with TOS configuration is to look at the name of the TOS value and apply some good judgement to how that name applies to certain service based traffic on your network. For example the TOS value Minimize-Cost designed to minimize data transmission generally not be a good setting to improve the responce time or throughput of HTTP connections. A more fitting setting for this would be "Maximum Throughput - Minimum Delay", as set to default for HTTP. The default TOS settings are designed to improve throughput and reliability for FTP,HTTP,SMTP,POP3 and IMAP, please review conf.apf under the TOS_ settings for further details on Type of Service (TOS). Following the TOS settings we find the traceroute settings TCR_ which tell the firewall if and how we should handle traceroute traffic. This is by default enabled in APF, mostly cause of popular demand but really there is no reason to have it enabled or disabled other than personal preference. The TCR_PASS option tells the firwall if we want to accept traceroutes and on the TCR_PORTS 3.3) Configuration: Reactive Address Blocking 3.4) Configuration: Virtual Network Files 3.5) Configuration: Global Variables & Custom Rules 4) General Usage: The /usr/local/sbin/apf command has a number of options that will ease the day-to-day use of your firewall. Here is a quick snap-shot of the options: usage /usr/local/sbin/apf [OPTION] -s|--start ......................... load the firewall rules -r|--restart ....................... stop (flush) & reload firewall rules -f|--stop .......................... stop (flush) all firewall rules -l|--list .......................... list chain rules -t|--status ........................ firewall status -e|--refresh ....................... refresh & resolve dns names in trust rules -a HOST CMT|--allow HOST COMMENT ... add host (IP/FQDN) to allow_hosts.rules and immediately load new rule into firewall -d HOST CMT|--deny HOST COMMENT .... add host (IP/FQDN) to deny_hosts.rules and immediately load new rule into firewall -u|--remove HOST ................... remove host from [glob_]deny_hosts.rules and immediately remove rule from firewall -o|--ovars ......................... output all configuration options These options explain themselves very clearly such as the start/stop/restart operations. The -l|--list option will list all the firewall rules you currently have loaded, this is more of a feature intended for experienced users but nevertheless can be insightful for any administrator to peak at. As for the -t|--status option, this will simply show you page-by-page the APF status log that tracks any operations you perform with APF - if something is not working properly, this is what you want to run. The -e|--refresh option will flush the trust system chains and reload them from the rule files, this will also cause any dns names in the rules to re-resolve. This feature is ideal if you have dynamic dns names in the trust system, apart from that it has few other uses. If you need to quickly allow or deny someone access on the system then the -a|--allow and -d|--deny options are your champions. If you need to quickly remove an allow or deny entry from the firewall then the -u|--remove option is there for it. These options are immediate in action and do NOT require the firewall to be restarted. Please the below sections of this file for more information on the trust system. Finally the -o|--ovars options is a debug feature, if something is not working the way it was intended and you need help them please send me an email to firstname.lastname@example.org and be sure to include the output of this option with your email. 4.1) General Usage: Trust System: The trust system in APF is a very traditional setup with two basic trust levels; allow and deny. These two basic trust levels are also extended with two global trust levels that can be imported from a remote server to assist with central trust management in a large scale deployment. We will first look at the basic trust levels then have a look at the extended global trust system in the following section 4.2 then the advanced trust syntax in 4.3. The two basic trust level files are located at: /etc/apf/allow_hosts.rules /etc/apf/deny_hosts.rules These files by nature are static, meaning that once you add an entry to them, they will remain in the files till you remove them yourself. The trust files accept both FQDN (fully qualified domain names) and IP addresses with optional bit masking. Examples of these formats are: yourhost.you.com (FQDN) 192.168.2.102 (IP Address) 192.168.1.0/24 (IP Address with 24 bit mask) The definition of IP bit masking is slightly out of the scope of this document but some common bit masks that are used would be: /24 (192.168.1.0 to 192.168.1.255) /16 (192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255) If you have common abuse from a network of addresses you can whois that address then determine the network operators assigned address space and ban the network with bit masking. There are two methods for adding entries to the trust files and they are first and formost by using an editor or interface of some type to edit the two files manually, such as nano (pico clone) or vi (old school editor). The second is by using the 'apf' command with the options --allow (-a for short), --deny (-d for short) and --remove (-u for short). The --allow|-a and --deny|-d flags both accept a comment option which is simply a string at the end of the command that you would like added to the trust rule files for reference. Here are some operating examples of these commands: Trust an address: apf -a ryanm.dynip.org "my home dynamic-ip" Deny an address: apf -d 192.168.3.111 "keeps trying to bruteforce" Remove an address: apf -u ryanm.dynip.org Please take note that the --remove|-u option does not accept a comment string for obvious reason and that it will remove entries that match from allow_hosts.rules, deny_hosts.rules and the global extensions of these files. 4.2) General Usage: Global Trust System 4.3) General Usage: Advanced Trust Syntax Advanced trust usage; The trust rules can be made in advanced format with 4 options (proto:flow:port:ip); 1) protocol: [packet protocol tcp/udp] 2) flow in/out: [packet direction, inbound or outbound] 3) s/d=port: [packet source or destination port] 4) s/d=ip(/xx) [packet source or destination address, masking supported] Flow assumed as Input if not defined. Protocol assumed as TCP if not defined. When defining rules with protocol, flow is required. Syntax: proto:flow:[s/d]=port:[s/d]=ip(/mask) s - source , d - destination , flow - packet flow in/out Examples: inbound to destination port 22 from 22.214.171.124 tcp:in:d=22:s=126.96.36.199 outbound to destination port 23 to destination host 188.8.131.52 out:d=23:d=184.108.40.206 inbound to destination port 3306 from 220.127.116.11/24 d=3306:s=18.104.22.168/24 4.4) General Usage: Dynamic Trust Files dyn_allow_hosts.rules dyn_deny_hosts.rules 5) License: APF is developed and supported on a volunteer basis by Ryan MacDonald [email@example.com] APF (Advanced policy firewall) is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) without restrictions on usage or redistribution. The APF copyright statement, and GNU GPL, "COPYING.GPL" are included in the top-level directory of the distribution. Credit must be given for derivative works as required under GNU GPL. 6) Support Information: If you require any assistance with APF you may refer to the R-fx Networks community forums located at http://forums.rfxnetworks.com. You may also send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. The offical home page for APF is located at: http://www.rfxnetworks.com/apf.php All bugs or feature requests should be sent to email@example.com and please be sure to include as much information as possible or conceptual ideas of how you think a new feature should work.